International, Transnational and Global Issues | THE WESTPHALIAN SYSTEM
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The establishment of the Westphalian System, its core points, and the changes it has encountered relating to concepts of sovereignty, liberalism, global interference, security, and conflict is discussed in “Relevance of the Westphalian System to the Modern World by Sasha Safonova” by Nicole Smith, 2012.


“Peace of Westphalia” from the New World Encyclopedia, 2015, discusses the Peace of Westphalia, how it came to establish the Westphalian System, the significance of this system within international relations in a traditional realist view and revisionist view, and cites modern views on the Westphalian System by prominent figures.


“Westphalia II: The Real Millennium Challenge” by Kimon Valaskakis, PhD, 2000, discusses the evolution of the Westphalian System from the Peace of Westphalia to establishing a world order from 1648- 1945, it examines the pillars of the Westphalian System (the concept of sovereignty, sovereignty and territory, national governments as the most powerful players, and the only form of enforceable international law as treaties between sovereign countries), the impact globalization has had on these pillars, and the possibility of a new world order.


“Is Westphalia Relevant to the Evolution of International Law?” by Rachel Alberstadt, 2012, provides a background of the System, uses the International Court of Justice an example of a connection to Westphalian norms, and argues that even though globalization is a key challenger to the Westphalian System, Westphalian principles continue to influence current affairs.


“Globalization and the Challenges of the State System in the Twenty-First Century” by Emmanuel Joseph Chukwuma Duru, 2012, discusses the emergence of globalization and the challenges it poses on the Westphalian state system. The paper argues that even with the intervention of globalization, the state remains as the main actor in international relations.


“How ‘Westphalian’ is the Westphalian Model- and Does it Matter?” by Camille Mulcaire, 2014, criticizes the Westphalian System of not actually being “Westphalian” by analyzing internal inconsistencies and arguing that the Westphalian System really had nothing to do with the Peace of Westphalia. He argues that the Peace of Westphalia did not support sovereignty, but actually restricted it and that the connection between the two came from a misunderstanding of the treaties and from a fixation on the concept of sovereignty in the 19th and 20th centuries.


“The Origins of Westphalian Sovereignty” by Kelly Gordon, 2008, comprises the view that the principles behind the Westphalian System actually existed long before the Peace of Westphalia and that the treaty only served to push these principles along.


“The Westphalian Model in Defining International Law: Challenging the Myth” by Stephane Beaulac, 2004, discusses how the idea that the Peace of Westphalia applied and recognized sovereignty for the first time, which created a paradigm shift in the state system, is actually a myth. It does so by analyzing political entities in the Middle Ages, the actual agreements reached in the Treaty of Westphalia, and the aftermath of 1648.

“After Westphalia, Whither the Nation State, Its People and Its Governmental Institutions?” by Michael Vaughan, PhD, 2011, discusses a weakening of the nation-state and a shift from centralized power within governments to a shared power among transnational corporations, international government organizations, and non-governmental organizations. This change has been brought about by an increase in global interdependence, domestic interest, and global economic growth.


“Globalization and the New World Order” by Dr. Keith Suter, 2006, discusses the internal problems of the Westphalian System and the new world order where nation states have to share power with other global actors such as non-governmental organizations, transnational corporations, and intergovernmental organizations (like the United Nations). The author concludes that globalization has and will continue to change the future world order due to the decline of the nation-state and the rise of other global actors.


“The Transformation of the International Legal System: The Post-Westphalian Legal Order” by Eric Allen Engle, 2004, discusses the end of the Westphalian System as brought about by private rights and duties under national and international law that are enforced through universal jurisdiction, global and regional trading systems. He describes the Post-Westphalian System as being classified by transnational organizations (like the EU, NAFTA, etc.), global entities (such as the WTO and UN), a system of global governance, free trade, and the idea that free trade promotes peace.