International, Transnational and Global Issues | BRETTON WOODS SYSTEM
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“The Bretton Woods Conference, 1944” from the U.S. Department of State Archive discusses the results of the Bretton Woods Conference.


“Bretton Woods-GATT, 1941-1947” from the U.S. Department of State Office of the Historian discusses the history of the Bretton Woods Conference.


“Keynes, White, and The Battle of Bretton Woods” by John Tammy,Forbes, 2013, discusses the Bretton Woods Conference and what it led to.


“What Was Decided at the Bretton Woods Summit” The Economist, 2014, discusses the outcome of the Bretton Woods conference.


“How Bretton Woods Reshaped the World” BBC News, 2008, discusses the lasting effects of the Bretton Woods Conference.

“A Brief History of: Bretton Woods System” Time, 2008, discusses what the system led to and its collapse.


“Bretton Woods: Birth and Breakdown” by John Braithwaite and Peter Drahos, 2001, discusses how the system broke down and describes the time after the collapse of the system.


“Nixon and the End of the Bretton Woods System, 1971-1973” from the U.S. Department of State Office of the Historian provides an overview of the collapse of the system.


Click here for an article by the Cato Institute on the strength weaknesses of the BWS and weaknesses of the system and the possibility of forming a new one. “Do we need a new Bretton Woods?” by Anna J. Schwartz


“The Nixon Shock Heard ‘Round the World” by Lewis E. Lehrman, from The Wall Street Journal, 2011, discusses Nixon’s decision and series of plans put in place to stop the conversion of U.S. dollars into hold, which led to the destabilization of the Bretton Woods System.


“The End of the Bretton Woods System (1972-81)” from the International Monetary Fund, explains how the Bretton Woods System ended and briefly discusses the role of the IMF after Bretton Woods in reference to the oil shocks and in assisting poor countries.

“Bretton Woods System and Post Bretton Woods System” by Philip O’Hara, discusses the Bretton Woods System and how it was based on the U.S. dollar being fixed to gold and the flaws that led to its collapse. Further, the failure of the World Bank in addressing the economic issues that arrived is discussed and the Post-Bretton Woods System is introduced as one with floating currencies based on market forces.



“Beyond Bretton Woods 2” from The Economist, 2010, discusses the dilemmas surrounding the Post-Bretton Woods monetary system currently in place and how it has no ties to gold or any other form of anchor. It refers to globalization and how it has allowed for a freer form of capital due to the removal of restrictions and also poses some similarities in the difficulties faced between the monetary system during the Bretton Woods era and the one during the Post-Bretton Woods era and provides possible solutions while warning of potential dangers in the current system.


“After Bretton Woods II” by Jose Luis Escriva et al., 2008, analyzes the current system that scholars have dubbed “Bretton Woods II” where China and other Asian countries have adopted fixed-exchange rates and export-led growth models that resemble the original Bretton Woods System. It is argued that even though the two share similarities, there are also important differences between the two systems.



“The Role of the International Monetary Fund in the Post-Bretton Woods Era” by Ron Phillips, 1983, discusses the evolution of the roles of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) during the Post-Bretton Woods era. The IMF has increasingly become somewhat of a central bank and with globalization and the internationalization of capital, the IMF serves more and more as a guide to the world economy in order to promote global accumulation.