POLITICS AND GEOPOLITICS OF TRADE AGREEMENTS
The documentary “The World Trade Organization” by Journeyman Pictures, 2007, discusses the history on the rise of the WTO.
“The GATT Years: From Havana to Marrakesh” from the World Trade Organization discusses the history of the GATT.
“United Nations Conference on Trade and Development: Dispute Settlement” from the World Trade Organization, 2003. Read “The Principle of Non-Discrimination in the GATT 1994” from pages 13-14 and “The Market Access Principle in the GATT 1994” pages 43-52.
“The WTO and GATT: A Principled History” from the Brookings Institution in 2009 provides an overview of the history behind the GATT and the WTO.
“From GATT to WTO: The Evolution of an Obscure Agency to One Perceived as Obstructing Democracy” by Susan Ariel Aaronson from the National Policy Association provides history, discusses the establishment of the WTO, its powers and the controversies surrounding the WTO.
“From GATT to the WTO and Beyond Research Guide” from Georgetown University in 2007 explains what the GATT and WTO are and includes some history.
“The Roots of the WTO” provides some history on the GATT and how it evolved into the WTO.
“Understanding the WTO: Who We Are” by the World Trade Organization discusses what the WTO is and what it does.
“The WTO” from Economics Online describes the WTO, some of its failures, and provides critiques.
“Ten Years of the WTO: A Success Story of Global Governance” by Mike Moore, 2005, discusses some of the successes of the WTO.
“The WTO Has Failed Developing Nations” by Aurelie Walker, 2011, discusses some of the failures of the WTO.
“Globalization and Its Impact On Current Politics: NAFTA and the Colossuses of the North” by Laura Lobe discusses the shortcomings of NAFTA.
“North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)” from the Office of the United States Trade Representative, Executive Office of the President, discusses the effectiveness of NAFTA and its effect on jobs and trade.
NAFTA’s website provides an explanation of what NAFTA is.
“NAFTA’s Economic Impact” by Mohammed Aly Sergie, 2014, explains what NAFTA is, and what effect it has had on the U.S., Canada, and Mexico.
“Ready to Take Off Again?” The Economist, 2014, discusses how NAFTA has performed thus far and how it will perform in the future.
“The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)” by M. Angeles Villareal and Ian F. Fergusson from the Congressional Research Service, 2015, Read “Trade trends and economic effects” pages 9-24.
“NAFTA at Seven: Its Impact on Workers in All Three Nations” by Robert E. Scott, Bruce Campbell, and Carlos Salas, Economic Policy Institute, 2001.
“Twenty Years Later, NAFTA Remains a Source of Tension” by Julian Aguilar, New York Times, 2012.
“NAFTA Triumphant: Assessing Two Decades of Gains in Trade, Growth, and Jobs” by the U.S. Chamber of Commerce discusses successes of NAFTA from the last twenty years.
“Why NAFTA passed and the Trans-Pacific Partnership failed” by Lydia DePillis from The Washington Post, 2015.
“A Brief History of NAFTA” Time by Andrea Ford, 2008.
“A Brief Analysis of the Impact of NAFTA on the United States and Mexico” by Animesh Singh, 2011.
“NAFTA and the Future of Canada, Mexico and the United States” by Marc Lanthemann, 2014.
“NAFTA’s Economic Impact” by Lee Hudson Teslik, 2008, discusses the effects NAFTA has had on the U.S., Canada, and Mexico.
“Food Fight in Florida Over the Tomato War” by Michel Marizco Fronteras/CAWL October 2012.
“Vietnam Feels Free-trade Downside” by Anh Le Tran, Asia Times, 2010.
“Jakarta Suffers Downside of Free-trade Deals” The Jakarta Post, Asia News Network, 2013.
What is “Trade Promotion Authority” according to the United States Trade Office?
Mark Greendorfer discusses current entanglement among Trade Promotion Authority, the Trans-Pacific Partnership and the boycotts, disinvestment and sanctions (BDS) approach with emphasis on the dispute over sanctions against Israel (American Thinker, October 8, 2015).
Grossman and Helpman’s “The Politics of Free Trade Agreements” (National Bureau of Economic Research, November 1993) offer insights into the role of special interest groups and the incumbent government in the negotiation of bilateral free trade agreements and discusses the necessary conditions for an equilibrium outcome in cases of all-encompassing trade agreements (all bilateral trade is included) and when politically sensitive sectors can be excluded from them. The paper ultimately shed light on the (still existing) tension between the political viability versus the social viability of free trade agreements.
The Transpacific Partnership presented by the Office of the United States Trade Representative.
“The Trans-Pacific Deal Explained” by Mark Grandeville (New York Times, May 11, 2015), provides useful information on the Trans-Pacific agreement, including a map.
Questions and Answers on the Transpacific Partnership by Michael Shear (New York Times, June 16, 2015).
“The Trans-Pacific Partnership and the President’s Legacy” by Peter Baker (New York Times June 14, 2015) discusses the role of economic and domestic political aspects versus geopolitical ones in the approach of legislators to the agreement.
Daniel Denser discusses the opposition that the Transpacific Partnership is facing in U.S. Congress (blog, Washington Post).
“Trans-Pacific Partnership’s Potential Impact Weighed in Asia and U.S.” by Keith Breadsher offers an interesting angle to the conversations on the agreement by incorporating views from Asia. This focus sheds light on the potential impact for Vietnam and markets of the region.
Daniel Ikenson discusses geopolitical dimensions of the TTIP (Trans-Atlantic Trade and Investment Partnership). Cato Institute September 21, 2015.
Carpentier de Gourdon (Pressenza Hong Kong, April 12, 2015) discusses geopolitical aspects of the Transpacific Partnership.
In his article “The Transpacific Agreement Isn’t Aimed at China”, Frank Ching responds to the argument of the agreement as being part of a containment strategy against China (The Japan Times, Opinion, n/d).
The article “China-backed Trade Pact Playing Catch-up After U.S.-led TPP Deal” (The Japan Times, October 11, 2015) refers to the talks between India and China as part of Berlins efforts at constituting the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP). The proposed deal is presented as “a proposed 16-nation free-trade area that would be the world’s biggest such bloc, encompassing 3.4 billion people.”
The European Commission offers a wealth of information on the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership
Information can also be found through The United States Mission to the European Union.
Andrew Walker’s “TTIP: Why the EU-US Trade Deal Matters” (BBC, May 13, 2015) offers information about the contents, timetable and controversial aspects of the proposed agreement.
Corporate Europe Observatory (July 8, 2015) offers a perspective on the potential implications of the TTIP on the introduction of Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs) in Europe.
Bernard Hoekman argues that the role of WTO won’t be diminished by the emerging deals. He emphasizes on the TPP, TTIP, and TISA. (Europe’s World, June 15, 2014).
The documentary “Global Exchange: Free Trade and Protectionism” by Journeyman Pictures, 2006, discusses the impacts of international trade.
POLITICS OF EXTERNAL DEBT CRISES
“Chapter 11: Foreign Debt and Financial Crises” from Global Political Economy: Theory and Practice by Theodore H. Cohn in 2009 discusses the crisis in the 1980s and 1990s.
In “Debt Crisis of the 1980s” from the National Graduate Institute for Policy Studies, the crises of the 1980s and 1990s is discussed.
This article by Jocelyn Sims and Jessie Romero in 2013 discusses the origins, resolutions passed, and lessons learned from the Latin American debt crisis.
This article from Jose Antonio Ocampo discusses the causes of the Latin American debt crisis, its effects on Latin America and how it was resolved.
This article by Enrique R. Carrasco discusses the role played by the IMF in the 1980s debt crisis, provides an overview of the crisis and demonstrates how it was resolved.
This article by Charles W.L. Hill discusses how the crisis occurred, the role of the IMF, and how the crisis was resolved.
This article by Giancarlo Corsetti, Paolo Presenti, Nouriel Roubini, from 1999 discusses the causes of the Asian financial crisis. Read sections 6 and 7.
This article by Morris Goldstein in 1998 discusses the origins of the crisis, the many possible solutions at the time, and what the author recommended should be done in the aftermath of the crisis.
The website for The Paris Club discusses its purpose and goals.
To see a list of agreements signed with Paris Club creditors per countryclick here.
To see the number of agreements made by Paris Club creditors per year click here.
This speech from Agustín Carstens in 2006from the International Monetary Fund discusses the importance and role played by the Paris Club in international financial affairs.
This article by Martin A. Weiss from the Congressional Research Service in 2013 discusses the role of the Paris Club. Read the introduction and background on pages 1-2 and U.S. participation on page 4.
This article by Ken Parks in 2014 from The Wall Street Journal discusses negotiations between Argentina and the Paris Club.
his Congressional Research Service article from 2005 discusses Iraq’s debt from 2004 and the Paris Club role in aiding Iraq.
“Global Economic Crisis” Yale Global Online, 2015. This report includes information on the causes of the crisis, the effects, and solutions for the crisis.
“The Global Financial Crisis: A Turning Point” by Jonathan Kirshner, 2014. This article discusses how transformative the financial crisis was internationally.
“The Financial Crisis of 2008: Year in Review” by Joel Havemann. This article discusses the crisis and its origins, how it unfolded, and its international repercussions.
“The Origins of the Financial Crisis: Crash Course” The Economist, 2013. This article discusses the lasting effects of the crisis and its causes.
“Global Financial Crisis” by Anup Shah, 2013. This article discusses how the financial system is affected and the scale of the crisis.
“Global Financial Crisis: Five Key Stages 2007-2011” by Larry Elliott, 2011. This article discusses the five different stages that led to the crisis.
“Economic Crisis Has Lasting Effect on Wellbeing Worldwide” by Gale Muller and Julie Ray 2012. This article discusses the lasting effects of the crisis.
“2008 Financial Crisis Impact Still Hurting States” by Jake Grovum, 2013. This article discusses the lasting impacts of the crisis.
“Greece’s Debt Crisis Explained” The New York Times, 2015. This article addresses the current debt crisis in Greece, how it happened, and how the crisis affects the global financial system.
“Greece: How Did It Get Into This Mess?” by Don Melvin, CNN, 2015. This article provides a timeline of events that led Greece toward economic crisis.
“Greek Debt Crisis: Everything You Need to Know” by Adam Shell, USA today, 2015.This article discusses the reasons why Greece is in debt and how this will affect both Greece and the European economy.
“A Decade of Overspending: How Greece Plunged Into Economic Crisis” by Philip Inman, 2015. This article discusses how Greece entered into the economic crisis.
“Greek Economic Crisis: Is A ‘Parallel Currency’ the Answer?” by Roger Aitken, 2015. This article discusses possible solutions to the crisis.
“Eurozone Crisis Explained” BBC, 2012. This article discusses Spain’s turn towards economic crisis.
“The Spanish Financial Crisis: Economic Reforms and the Export-Led Recovery” by David C. Wagner, 2014. This article provides an overview of the Spanish crisis and its causes.
“As Greece Stares Into the Abyss, Has Spain Escaped From Crisis?” by Alistair Dawber, 2015. This article discusses the progress of Spain in emerging from its economic crisis.
“Debt Crisis: Where Did It All Go Wrong in Spain?” by Martin Roberts, 2012. This article discusses the economic crisis in Spain and how it occurred.
“The Spanish Economic Crisis: Key Factors and Growth Challenges in the Euro Area” by Eloisa Ortega and Juan Penalosa, 2012. This paper discusses the causes behind Spain’s economic crisis.
“The Worst May Be Over” The Economist, 2013. This article discusses the possible progress of Spain’s economic crisis.
“Spain: Recovery with Moral Disarray” by Carlos Carnicero Urabayen, 2014. This article discusses the aftermath of the crisis.
In “The Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP): The Geopolitical Reality” Bromund and Gardiner (The Heritage Foundation, September 17, 2014) argue that it is important to understand the geopolitical dimensions of the TTIP, its limitation to improve U.S.-EU relations and in sorting out the rise of China.
Rem Korteweg argues that geopolitics is the ultimate motif of the TTIP (“It’s the Geopolitics, Stupid: Why TTIP Matters” (Center for European Reform, April 2015).
“Turkey and the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership – Boosting the Model Partnership with the United States” by Kemal Kirişci (Brookings Research 2013), argues for the inclusion of Turkey in the current regional partnerships based on geopolitical considerations.