International, Transnational and Global Issues | Terrorism
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“Various Definitions of Terrorism” from the Department of Emergency and Military Affairs, Arizona Military Museum describes the controversy of defining terrorism and includes the many definitions created by agencies.


“Terrorism: Definitions of Terrorism in the U.S. Code” from the FBI defines “international terrorism,” “domestic terrorism,” and “federal crime of terrorism.”


“Terrorism” from the United Nations discusses strategies for countering terrorism, the difficulty in defining terrorism and how this affects efforts to stop terrorism.


“The United Nations in the Fight against Terrorism” by Javier Rupérez defines terrorism and discusses the efforts made by the United Nations to counter and respond to terrorism.


“Human Rights, Terrorism and Counter-terrorism” Office of the United Nations High Commisioner for Human Rights. Read pages 5-9 and 11-22.


“What’s in a Name? How Nations Define Terrorism Ten Years After 9/11” by Sudha Setty, 2011, discusses how definitions are shaped,  looks at the lack of definition for terrorism, and discusses the definitions used by the United States, United Kingdom, and India.


“Defining Terrorism in National and International Law” by Christian Walter, 2003, provides definitions of terrorism in national law and international law while also examining the necessary aspects found within each definition.


“How to Define Terrorism” by Jenny Teichman, 1989. This article is an analysis on the way to define terrorism. Teichman argues that one could define terrorism by using history. She provides a look at official definitions by government agencies, discusses the many dimensions of terrorism, and provides a narrow and broad definition of terrorism while examining the effectiveness of each.

“Types of Terrorism” by Nick Grothaus, 2011, describes the different forms of terrorism that exist such as state terrorism, religious terrorism, pathological terrorism, issue oriented terrorism, narco-terrorism, etc.


“The Causes of Terrorism” by Martha Crenshaw, 1981. This paper analyses the setting, the reasons, and the motivation and participation for terrorism.


“The Roots of Terrorism” edited by Louise Richardson, 2006. Read ‘The Roots of Terrorism: An Overview’ by Louise Richardson Page 1, ‘Suicide Terrorism’ by Nasra Hassan Page 29, ‘Democracy and Terrorism’ by Leonard Weinberg Page 45, ‘Terrorism and Globalization’ by Atanas Gotchez Page 103, and ‘Religion as a Cause of Terrorism’ by Mark Juergensmeyer Page 133.

“Drug Trafficking and the Financing of Terrorism” United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. This article discusses the potential revenue gained from drug trafficking that is used to fund terrorism.


“UN: Afghan’s $61B Drug Trade Funding Terrorism” by Pamela Falk, CBS News, 2011. This article discusses the drug trade that has been linked to terrorist activities in Afghanistan.


“Drug Trafficking and Middle Eastern Terrorist Groups: A Growing Nexus?” by Michael Braun, 2008. This article summarizes a speech made by Michael Braun, the assistant administrator and chief of operations at the U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration, discussing the connection between the drug trade and terrorism in the Middle East as well as the threat this might pose to U.S. national security.


“Terrorism and Organized Crime” European Parliament of the European Union. This article discusses the methods used to fund terrorism such as the drug trade.


“Narco-Terror: The Worldwide Connection between Drugs and Terror” Rand Beers, and Francis X. Taylor, 2002. This speech by Rand Beers, assistant secretary for international narcotics and law enforcement affairs, and Francis X. Taylor, ambassador-at-large for counterterrorism, covers the link between terrorism and drugs and many examples of terrorist organizations in Latin America, South Asia, Former Soviet Union, Middle East, and Europe known to have this connection with drug trafficking.


“A Global Overview of Narcotics-Funded Terrorist and Other Extremist Groups” by Federal Research Division, Library of Congress, 2002. A global survey on the connection between terrorism and organized crime with a focus on drug trafficking. Includes information on drug funded terrorist groups in Latin America, Lebanon, Syria, Albania, the Balkans, and Central Asia.


“Illicit Drugs and the Terrorist Threat: Causal Links and Implications for Domestic Drug Control Policy” by Mark A.R. Kleiman, Congressional Research Service, 2004. This report for congress discusses the many ways drug trade contributes to terrorism, the connection between drugs and terrorism, and the possible solutions to this connection.


“The Threat Posed from the Convergence of Organized Crime, Drug Trafficking, and Terrorism” by Frank Cillufo, Center for Strategic and International Studies, 2000. This article differentiates between organized crime and terrorism, discusses their strengthening ties and cooperation through the drug trade, the challenge this poses, and a brief description of this situation in regions and countries all over the world.


“Narco-Terrorism: The Merger of the War on Drugs and the War on Terror” by Emma Björnehed, 2004. This article analyses narco-terrorism, looks at solutions to counter this problem, and provides the similarities and differences between the trafficking of narcotics and terrorism in order to fully understand “narco-terrorism.”


“Narcoterrorism” John Holmberg, 2009. This essay discusses the meanings of narcoterrorism and the security threats it has posed. It focuses on narcoterrorism in specific terrorist organizations.


“Narco-Terrorism: An increasing threat to national security” by David A. Haupt, 2009. This essay discusses and defines narco-terrorism, discusses the drug trade and the effect globalization has had on this, and provides case studies on Afghanistan, Mexico, and the United States.


“A Better Strategy Against Narcoterrism” by Vanda Felbab-Brown, 2006. This article provides a solution to stop narcoterrorism and explains how current ways to solve the problem are ineffective.


“Narcoterrorism As A Threat To International Security” by Stephen Blank, 2001. This article discusses the drug trade as an important source for terrorism and the security threats this poses.


“Europe’s Crime-Terror Nexus: Links between terrorist and organized crime groups in the European Union” Directorate General for Internal Policies, European Parliament, 2012. A case study on the links between organized crime and terrorism in the European Union.

“Religious Extremism Main Cause of Terrorism, According to Report”by George Arnett, 2014. This article discusses trends in global terrorism relating to religion.


“Obama: No Religion Responsible for Terrorism” by David Jackson, USA Today, 2015. This article discusses President Obama’s refusal to use terms such as “Islamic extremism” since the real battle is against terrorism, not religion.


“Terrorism in the Name of Religion” by Magnus Ranstorp, 1996. This article discusses trends of religious terrorism throughout history and the causes of religious terrorism.


“The Role of Religion in International Terrorism” Thomas J. Badey, 2002. The article discusses issues in defining religious terrorism and the role of religion in international terrorism.


“Chapter 6- Violence in the Name of the Faith: Religious Terrorism”from Terrorism and Homeland Security by Gus Martin, 2010.  This chapter explains religious terrorism, provides history of religious terrorism and examples, and discusses the types of religious terrorism.


“’Holy Terror’: The Implications of Terrorism Motivated by a Religious Imperative” Bruce Hoffman, 1993. This article provides an explanation and differentiates religious terrorism from secular terrorism.


“The Confluence of Research Traditions on Terrorism and Religion, A Social Psychological Examination” by Ted Olsen and James T. Richardson, 2007. This article discusses the study of religion and the study of terrorism. It provides a definition and explanation of terrorism as well as discusses religious terrorism.


The video “ISIS” from Ahlulbayt TV, 2014, includes a set of interviews discussing the terrorist organization ISIS from an Iraqi point of view.


Length: 9:58


“Regions of Risk: Western Discourses on Terrorism and the Significance of Islam” by Greg Bankoff, 2003, discusses the places that tend to be imagined and depicted as regions of risk. It criticizes generalizations that denigrate large regions of the world (seen as dangerous and terrorist-spawning) and their representations of the people of these regions as inferiors.


“The Islamic World and the West: An Introduction to Political Cultures and International Relations” by Kai Hafez, 2000. The section ‘West-eastern cultures of fear: Violence and terrorism in Islam’ by Thomas Scheffler page 70, discusses how a survey of important violent conflicts in the Islamic region does not corroborate with the Western mass media depiction that violence and terrorism in the region is attributable to religious factors.

“Americans Have Yet to Grasp the Horrific Magnitude of the ‘War on Terror’” by Lauren Carasik, Al Jazeera, 2015. This article discusses the casualties and monetary cost of the war on terror.


“The Fight Against Terrorism: Where’s NATO” by Tomas Valasek, 2001. The lack of cooperation from NATO in the war on terror.


“NATO Turns to Terrorism Fight” BBC News, 2003. NATO joins effort towards the war on terror.


“State Sponsors of Terrorism” from the U.S. Department of State.