International, Transnational and Global Issues | Power Hegemony Sovereignty …
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Power Hegemony Sovereignty …


Click here for conceptualizations of power.


Click here for  Max Weber’s approach to power authority and the state.

Joseph Nye in 2013 on the concept of Soft Power.


Sun Tzu and the art of soft power from The Economist, 2011.


Read this article on Joseph Nye on China’s Soft Power Deficit, 2012.


Click here to read about China and Soft Power, The New York Times,2012.


“The Effectiveness of Soft and Hard Power in Contemporary International Relations” by Jan-Philipp N.E. Wagner, 2014, defines, explains, and provides examples for hard power and soft power.


“Hard Power, Soft Power, and the Goals of Diplomacy” By Robert Cooper, 2004, defines hard power and soft power by comparing it to organizations and countries. For example, shows America as hard power and Europe as soft power.


“Soft Power” by Joseph S. Nye, Jr., 1990, explains how the U.S. has gradually changed its strategies from hard power to soft power throughout time and describes what soft power is. Nye was also the person who coined the term “soft power.”


“The information Revolution and Soft Power” by Joseph S. Nye, Jr., 2014, explains the increased role of soft power due to the information revolution.


“Hard Power, Soft Power, Smart Power” by Ernest J. Wilson III, 2008, argues that instead of choosing between hard power and soft power, both should be combined to form something called “smart power.” He describes the positives and negatives of utilizing only soft or only hard power.


“Power and its Forms: Hard, Soft, Smart” by Matteo Pallaver, 2011, defines power, hard power, soft power, and questions the existence the concept of smart power and whether it can be coined as a new form of power.


“The American Perspective on Hard and Soft Power” by Paul R. Pillar, 2011,  is a speech regarding how Americans view the use of hard or soft power in foreign relations. Americans don’t realize the negative effects and responses from international actors regarding America’s use of hard power.


“Soft Power, Hard Power, and Our Image Abroad” by Tim Quirk, 2010, defines soft and hard power and notes differences in their uses among American presidential administrations and demonstrates the effects of these uses on America’s image abroad.


“The Virtues of Hard Power” by Robert D. Kaplan, 2013, Forbes, describes the necessity for continuing the use of hard power.


“The Concept of Power: A Critical Defense” by Roderick Martin, 1971, cites various definitions of power, provides criticisms for them, forms his own definition of power, mentions the problems with the measurement of power, and analyzes the bases of social power.


“Feminist Perspectives on Power” Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, 2011, includes various definitions of power.


“Introduction: Why Power is the Central Concept of the Social Sciences” from The Sage Handbook of Power by Mark Haugaard and Stewart R. Clegg, 2008, demonstrates the many conceptualizations of power that have shaped the current perceptions of power in the social sciences.


“Antonio Gramsci and the Idea of Hegemony” … discusses Antonio Gramsci and his contribution to the concept of hegemony.


Succinct definition of hegemony by Robert Cox, IR theoretician and follower of Gramsci.


“Hegemony” by Michael Lewis Goldberg includes definitions and conceptualizations of hegemony.


“‘Manufacturing Dissent’: The Anti-globalization Movement is Funded by the Corporate Elites” by Michel Chossudovsky (2015) builds upon the Gramcian tradition on the exercise of power should bethrough co-optation and consensus.

“Hegemony in International Relations” by TJ McKeown discusses the concept of hegemony in the study of international relations.


“Hegemony” from The New York Times provides a definition of hegemony.


“From ‘Theories of Hegemony’ to ‘Hegemony Analysis’ in International Relations” by Andreas Antoniades, 2008 discusses the approaches to studying hegemony in international relations, and the different meanings used in these studies.

Click here read the first paragraph of excerpt by Duncan Snidal for a brief definition.


Click here to access “Beyond Hegemonic Stability” by Milner.

The article “American Hegemony is Here to Stay” by Salvatore Babones, 2015, analyzes what has been said about America’s hegemonic decline and mentions the importance in American interest for the U.S. to remain a hegemonic power.


“Republics Between Hegemony and Empire: How Ancient City-States Built Empires and the USA Doesn’t (Anymore)” by Walter Scheidel, 2006 defines hegemony and empire and discusses how the U.S. is not an empire.


“China’s Economic Hegemony Inspires Fears” by Richard Javad Heydarian, Al Jazeera, 2015, explores China’s growing economic strength and how this poses a threat to China’s increasingly dependent neighbors.


“What Would Chinese Hegemony Look Like?” by Robert E. Kelly, 2014, discusses China’s economic rise and the opinion among some scholars that China seeks regional hegemony through its increasing influence over neighboring countries.


“The Crises of Russian Hegemony in the Post-Soviet Space” by Irakli Sirbiladze, 2015, discusses how Russia still regards post-Soviet countries as part of its hegemonic rule. It also mentions Russia’s efforts to keep these countries away from Western influences and the United States’ subsequent efforts to prevent the spread of Russian influence in Eastern Europe.


Encyclopedia Britannica on Sovereignty.


The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy provides definitions of sovereignty.


“Sovereignty” by James Roberts from The Internet Encyclopedia of International Relations provides a definition and explanation of sovereignty.


“What are the Implications of Internal and External Sovereignty?”Provides various definitions, explains its importance for states, and discusses its two aspects: internal and external.


“Sovereignty” by Eric Brahm, 2004, defines sovereignty and distinguishes between its internal and external aspects. It also mentions its historical development.


“Sovereignty: General Principles” by Alessandro Pelizzon defines sovereignty, explains who has sovereignty, how it is recognized, and how it is acquired.


“Sovereignty and International Law” by Miyoshi Masahiro examines the historical roots of sovereignty and the contemporary notion of the word, while arguing the continued dependence of states to the concept of state sovereignty.


“State Sovereignty in International Relations” by Janice E. Thomson, 1995. Read the section on the dimensions of sovereignty. The dimensions include the state, authority, recognition, coercion, and territoriality.


“Sovereignty, Globalization and Transnational Social Movements” by Raimo Väyrynen, 2001, discusses dimensions of sovereignty, the economic connection of globalization and sovereignty (regarding  global markets and transaction costs), and transnational movements. 

“Conflicting Interests: The United Nations Versus Sovereign Statehood” by Farid Mirbagheri, 2000, discusses sovereignty, the history of sovereignty, and the way the United Nations deals with the issue of sovereignty.


“Balancing Sovereignty and Democracy at the UN” by Adam Lupel, 2013, describes the conflicts between the UN and state sovereignty especially in its promotion for democracy.

“Sovereignty, Human Rights, and Self-Determination: The Meaning of International Law” Father Robert Araujo, 2000, discusses sovereignty in relation to the practice and protection of human rights.


“State Sovereignty and Human Rights” by Jack Donnelly, 2004, defines sovereignty and discusses the effects human rights have on it, which is said to undermine state sovereignty.


“Sovereignty, Human Rights and Legitimacy in the Post-Cold War World” by Michael Joseph Smith. Read the section called “Legitimacy and the Westphalian System of Sovereignty” for concepts of legitimacy and sovereignty within the context of the Westphalian System.


“Sovereignty and Globalisation” by Richard N. Haass, Council on Foreign Relations, 2006.


“The End of the Welfare State? How Globalization is Affecting State Sovereignty” by Katherine Wall, 2012, from Global Policy Journal,  argues there has been two effects of globalization on the sovereignty of states: economic integration and a social contract.


“Foreign Policy” from the Encyclopedia Britannica provides a definition of foreign policy.

“Globalisation: The End of Foreign Policy?” BBC News, 2001.


“Globalization, the World System, and ‘Democracy Promotion’ in U.S. Foreign Policy” by William I. Robinson, 1996, discusses the effect globalization has on U.S. foreign policy efforts to promote democracy.

“US Foreign Policy and the Securitization of Economic Globalization”by Richard Higgot, 2004, discusses the effect of globalization on foreign policy and the effects of economics and security on foreign policy.


“U.S. Foreign and Defense Policy: A Brief Overview” by Larry Sabato and Karen O’Connor discusses the history of U.S. foreign policy.


“US Foreign Policy Agenda: The Making of US Foreign Policy” from the U.S. Department of State, 2000, discusses foreign policy in the U.S. and how it is formed. Read pages 5-9 and 25-28.