International, Transnational and Global Issues | Population Environment
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Population Environment


United Nations, 2013. World Population Prospects, 2012 Revision. “Demographic Profiles”. United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division.


“World Population Growth” Our World in Data, Max Roser, 2015.


“Population Growth” The World Bank. Annual data.


“Population and Population Change Statistics” European Union, 2015.


“World Population Trends” United Nations Population Fund, 2015.


“Current World Population” from Worldometers.

Malthusian Theory


The article “Malthusian Theory of Population” AAG Center for Global Geography Education, 2011, describes the Malthusian theory of population.


The paper “Malthusian and Neo-Malthusian Theories” by Ran Abramitzky and Fabio Braggion discusses the Malthusian theory and differentiates it from the neo-Malthusian theories.


The article “Malthusian Theory of Population: Explained with its Criticism” by Tushar Seth explains the Malthusian theory and discusses some criticisms of the theory.


“Malthus and Becker: Who Was Right?” By Maria Sophia Aguirre, PhD, 2002. This article discusses the Malthusian theory and its failures and discusses the Human Capital Theory by Gary Becker.


“Malthus: The False Prophet” The Economist, May 15, 2008.


“Malthus: More Relevant Than Ever” by William R. Catton, Jr., 1998. This article discusses the relevance of the Malthusian theory.


“The Promise of Perfectibility: Can Education Save Us from a Malthusian Trap?” By Jacob A. Eichengreen, 2011. This essay discusses whether people can avoid reaching the limit to human population growth described by Malthus.


Neo-Malthusian Theory


“Paul Ehrlich: Neo-Malthusian” AAG Center for Global Geography Education, 2011. This article discusses the population theories of Paul Ehrlich.


“Neo-Malthusianism: A Narrow Theory Exceeds its Carrying Capacity”by Henri Acselrad, 2006. This article discusses the Neo-Malthusian theory and its assumptions.


Marxist Theory


“Karl Marx’s Theory of Population” AAG Center for Global Geography Education, 2011. This article discusses Marx’s theory of population.


“Marxism and the Population Question: Theory and Practice” by William Petersen, 1988. This article reviews the Marxist views on population.


Cornucopian Theory


“Malthusians vs Cornucopians: A Contemporary Perspective on Population Growth” by Patrick Regoniel, 2012. This article differentiates between the Malthusian theory and the Cornucopian theory on population.


“Resource Scarcity and Economic Growth in Poor Developing Countries: Missing Links in Simon’s Cornucopian Philosophy” by David Pearce, 1985. This article is a criticism on the missing links in Julian Simon’s cornucopian theory.


Boserupian Theory


“Turning But Not Toppling Malthus: Boserupian Theory on Population and the Environment Relationships” by Catherine Marquette, 1997. This article discusses the Boserupian theory and its relevancy to developing countries.


“Ester Boserup’s Theory of Agrarian Change: A critical review” by David Gregg. This article discusses the Boserup theory and its criticisms.

“Cornucopian Versus New Malthusian Perspectives” Patricia Muir, 2011. This article compares and contrasts the Cornucopian and New Malthusian theories.


“Chapter Six: When the Population Clock Stops Ticking” by Natalie Jackson page 92 from Controversies in Environmental Sociology Edited by Rob White. This chapter discusses the neo-Malthusian, Cornucopian, and Marxist theory.


“The Population Issue: Marx vs. Malthus” by Martha E. Gimenez, 1973. This article differentiates the Malthusian theory to the Marxist theory.


“A Pragmatic Market Perspective on the Cornucopian and Neo-Malthusian Environmental Debate Advanced by the Julian Simon and Paul Erhlich Wager” by Karen Spohn and Thomas M. Fitzpatrick. This article discusses the debates between neo-Malthusian and Cornucopian theories.


“Population Theories and Social Change” by Leo F. Schnore, 1975. This essay discusses theories of changes in population size and distribution.


“Four theories of Population Change and the Environment” by Carole L. Jolly, 1994. This article discusses theories of population change, the environment, and land use.


This article titled “What is the Impact of Globalization on the Environment?” by Jean-Yves Huwart and Loic Verdier from the OECD in 2013 highlights the effects globalization has on the environment.


This article titled “Globalization Plays a Bit Part in Environmental Issues” by Pankaj Ghemawat in 2012 argues that the impacts of globalization on the environment are not severe.


The site “Environmental Change” from the World Health Organization in 2015 discusses the debates on whether globalization affects the environment positively or negatively.


The article “Economic Globalization and the Environment” by Jerry Mander in 2001 refutes the idea that globalization enables environmental protection instead of causing harm to the environment.


The article “Environment and Globalization: Five Propositions” by Adil Najam, David Runnalls, and Mark Halle from the International Institute for Sustainable Development in 2007 discusses five propositions for the effects globalization has on the environment.

The United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) site discusses its attempt to merge environmental sustainability and development.

NASA provides the scientific basics for understanding some of the causes of climate change.


The Union of Concerned Scientists discusses the impacts of climate change and sites some possible solutions.


The Natural Resources Defense Council explains climate change and how it affects us.

The Union of Concerned Scientists includes an interactive map that demonstrates the effects of global warming in certain areas.


The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change provides reports on climate change for 2013 and 2014.

National Geographic discusses some of the causes of global warming.


The Environmental Defense Fund explains how humans are responsible for global warming.


The Natural Resources Defense Council discusses some of the basics of global warming.

The paper “Gender-Specific Out-Migration, Deforestation and Urbanization in the Ecuadorian Amazon” written by Alisson F. Barbieri and David L. Carr in 2005 discusses how the spread of urbanization has led to deforestation.


Greenpeace provides some solutions to deforestation.


“Deforestation: Facts, Causes & Effects” by Alina Bradford from livescience in 2015.

The documentary “World in the Balance: China Revs Up” by Chris Schmidt and Joel Olicker, NOVA, 2004, discusses China’s contribution to pollution.

Length: 56:05


The article “Overview of Pollution” from the WWF discusses the causes and impacts of pollution.


The article “An Interactive Air-Pollution Map” by Angel Hsu and Alisa Zomer from The Atlantic in 2014 includes an interactive map and discusses global air pollution.


The article “Dirty Cars, Dirty Air” Union of Concerned Scientists. This article discusses the amount of pollution caused by cars.


The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency sets acceptable air quality standards seen here.


The article “Industrial Pollution” by Conserve Energy Future discusses the causes of industrial pollution and its effects.


The article “Urbanization and Urban Air Pollution” from the World Bank discusses urbanization and its effects on air pollution.


“As China Roars, Pollution Reaches Deadly Extremes” by Joseph Kahn and Jim Yardley from The New York Times in 2007 discusses the pollution caused by China’s growing industry.


“China’s Unwelcome Export to the US: Air Pollution” by John W. Schoen from CNBC in 2014 discusses the air pollution in China and how it is spreading towards other areas.


“Industrialization, Trade and Pollution in Latin America: A Review of the Issues” by Rhys Jenkins in 1998 discusses the correlations between industrialization, trade, and pollution in Latin America.


“Urbanization and its Environmental Effects in Shanghai, China” by Linli Cui and Jun Shi in 2012 discusses the effects of urbanization in China.


“Urbanization, Air Pollution, and Human Health” by Aashish Deshpande and P.K. Mishra in 2007.


“Economic Development, Pollutant Emissions and Energy Consumption in Malaysia” by James B. Ang in 2008 discusses the pollution caused by economic development in Malaysia.