A discussion of the definition and the changing meanings of the term can be found in Chapter I of The Russian Empire and its Rivals by Dominic Lieven.
In his archeological study of a pre-Hispanic empire in Central Mexico , Smith and Montiel use recent tools for the study of empires to the understanding of a pre-Columbus experience.
Defining informal empire by Gregory Barton (Siam and the Middle East).
In “The Imperialism of Free Trade” (1953) Gallagher provides an insightful explanation of informal empire based on the British experience.
Alexander J. Motyl in “Why Empires Reemerge: Imperial Collapse and Imperial Revival in Comparative Perspectives,” 1999, defines empires as structurally centralized political systems where core elites dominate the peripheries and where there is a flow of resources and information from the periphery to the core and back. He also discusses empires as having three defining characteristics relating to the “core” and the “periphery” and the relations between the two.
This excerpt from Atlas of Empires by Peter Davidson, 2009, provides a simple definition of an empire as an unequal relationship between a core state and a periphery of one or more states.
In “Approaches to Defining ‘Empire’ and Characterizing United States Influence in the Contemporary World” from 2008, Yale H. Ferguson discusses four approaches for defining empire: ideal type, empirical, constructivist, and normative.
“Empire, Imperlialism, and Conceptual History” by Helge Jordheim and Iver B. Neumann, 2011, discusses the conceptual history of the term empire and how the term has returned to scholarly discourse especially in reference to the position of the United States in the world.
The documentary “Engineering an Empire: China” produced by Delores Gavin, 2006,provides the history behind the Chinese empire.
“The Early Chinese Empire: The Qin and the Han” Asia for educators, Columbia.
“Timeline of Chinese History and Dynasties” by Michael Tsin.
“China’s first empire” by Michawl Loewe, 2007. This article provides a discussion on the Qin Empire.
“China’s economic empire” by Heriberto Araujo and Juan Pablo Cardenal, 2013. NY Times. This article discusses the rise of China as an economic empire.
“As china becomes, again, the world’s largest economy…” The Economist. This article discusses China growing as an economic power.
“China: rise, fall and re-emergence as a global power: the lessons of history” by Prof. James Petras, 2012. This article looks at the historical rise of China as an economic empire.
“China profile-timeline” BBC, 2015. This article includes a timeline of China’s history.
“China’s rise, America’s fall” by Ron Unz, 2012. This article discusses China’s rise as an economic empire and America’s decline.
“The new global economy: rise of china and decline of USA” by G. Asgar Mitha, 2015. Another article on the decline of the US and rise of China as an economic power.
Leizhen Zang’s “Global Governance: How Fine, How Fast, and How Far: A Perspective of China,” Global Policy.
Robert D. Kaplan’s “China’s Budding Ocean Empire,” The National Interest, June 2014.
Francis Fukuyama’s “China’s Bad Emperor Problem,” The Huffington Post, February 2014.
“Empire of the Sums,” The Economist, August 2014.
Acemoglu’s “The Failed Autocrat: Despite Erdogan’s Ruthlessness, Turkey’s Democracy is Still on Track” in Foreign Affairs, May 2014.
Cinar Kiper’s “Sultan Erdogan: Turkey’s Rebranding Into the New, Old Ottoman Empire” in The Atlantic, April 2013.
Nick Danforth’s “The Empire Strikes Back” in Foreign Policy, March 2014.
Elmira Bayrasli’s “The Ottoman Revival is Over” in The New York Times, March 2014
The documentary “Engineering an Empire: Russia” produced by Delores Gavin, 2006, discusses the history behind Russia’s rise as an empire.
“Russian History: From the Early East Slavs to the Grand Duchy of Moscow” by Julien Paolantoni, 2012. History of Russian Empire Part I.
“Russian History: The Rise of a Superpower, Foundation of the Russian Empire” by Julien Paolantoni, 2012. Part II: from the reinforcement of Tsardom to the Congress of Vienna.
“The Fall of the Russian Empire: The End of the Monarchy” by Edmund Walsh, 1928.
Abigail Hauslohner’s “Young Russians Never Knew the Soviet Union…” The Washington Post, June 2014.
Mark Adomanis’ “7 Reasons That Russia is Not the Soviet Union” Forbes, December 2013.
Lilia Shevtsova’s “Putin’s Attempt to Recreate the Soviet Empire is Futile” Financial Times, January 2014.
RUSSIA AND CRIMEA
Immanuel Wallerstein (world-systems analysis, Yale University) “The Geopolitics of Ukraine’s Schism”
William J. Broad, New York Times, “In Taking Crimea, Putin Gains a Sea of Fuel Reserves”.
“Why Would Russia Deploy Bombers in Crimea?” By Pavel Aksenov, 2015. This article discusses recent military developments from Russia in Crimea and discusses tensions between Russia and the United States.
“Why Crimea is so Dangerous” BBC 2014. This article discusses the dangers in Crimea due to the tension between Russia and the West over Crimea. This article refers to the time before the referendum and annexation of Crimea into Russia.
“Eight Months After Russia Annexed Crimea From Ukraine, A Complicated Transition” by Michael Birnbaum, 2014, The Washington Post. This article discusses the effects of the annexation on Crimea and the fears Ukraine faces.
“One Year After Russia Annexed Crimea, Locals Prefer Moscow to Kiev” by Kenneth Rapoza, 2015, Forbes. This article discusses a different perspective demonstrating Crimeans as content with the annexation according to polls taken.
“Russia’s Second Crimean Invasion” by Brian Whitmore, 2015. This article discusses Russia planning on sending an “army of political commissars” to run Crimean affairs and keep a close eye on the local authorities in Crimea.
“Ukraine Cries ‘Robbery’ As Russia Annexes Crimea” by Matt Smith and Alla Eschenko, CNN, 2014. This article describes the outrage felt by Ukraine for losing Crimea to Russia. It provides the different sentiments for the different sides: Russia, Ukraine, and Crimea.
“Is Crimea Gone? Annexation No Longer the Focus of Ukraine Crisis” by Tom Cohen, CNN, 2014. This article discusses Ukraine’s fear after the movement of Russian troops into east Ukraine.
“To Understand Crimea, Take a Look Back at its Complicated History” by Adam Taylor, 2014, Washington post. This article discusses the history of Crimea.
“Historical Claim Show Why Crimea Matters to Russia” by Julie Kliegman, 2014. This article discusses Crimea’s historical ties to Russia until 1954 when it joined Ukraine. It also includes a timeline of events in Crimea.
“Complex Crimea: The History Behind the Relationship Between Russia and Ukraine Over Crimea” by Charlotte Hodgman, 2011. This article provides history on Crimea.
“Why Did Russia Give Away Crimea Sixty Years Ago” by Mark Kramer. This article discusses the reasons behind why Crimea was given to Ukraine in 1954.
“Ukraine, Russia, Crimea: How the Story Evolved” by Alia E. Dastagir, USA Today, 2014. This article provides a simplified explanation of the issue in Crimea.
“History: What Does Crimea Mean to Russia?” by Oriental Review, 2014. This article provides more history on the matter.
The PBS documentary “America at a Crossroads: Inside America’s Empire” produced and directed by Tim Pritchard, 2007, discusses America’s prominence around the world, especially militarily, and how this has helped it become an empire. Special focus on the wars of Iraq and Afghanistan.
The article “Coming to Terms with the American Empire” by George Friedman, 2015, discusses the rise of the American empire, the problems it faced, and the responsibilities of such a position.
The article “Decline and Fall: How American Society Unraveled” by George Packer, 2013, discusses what led to and continued to influence the decline of the American empire.
The article “The American Empire; The Burden” by Michael Ignatieff, 2003, discusses America as an empire and the influence it has had because of it.
“The Decline and Fall of the American Empire” by CBS news, 2010, discusses predictions of the fall of the American empire and the effects that this will have on America.
“Decline and Fall of the American Empire” by Larry Elliott, 2011, discusses the possible decline of America due to the economic problems it faces and compares it to other empires, such as Rome and Britain, and their declines.
“The Decline and Fall of the American Empire” by Alfred W. McCoy, 2010, discusses the prediction that by 2025 the American empire will have fallen and the possible causes and effects of this.
“The Decline and Fall of the American Empire?” by Keith Roberts, 2011, compares the American empire to the issues that surrounded the Roman Empire and its decline.
“Decline of the American Empire? Global Configurations of Power, the Swindle Economy and the Criminal State” by Prof. James Petras, 2013, examines the position the United States has as a world power and addresses the factors that have been mentioned by other scholars to have caused the decline.
“How 9/11 Hastened the Decline of the American Empire” by Mary O’Connell, 2011, CBS news, discusses how 9/11 started the decline of the American empire and addresses what political elites have mentioned about America not being an empire.