International, Transnational and Global Issues | Development
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“What is Development?” from the World Bank, 2004, defines development, its means, and goals while also defining other key terms such as human development and sustainable development.


“Theories of Development: Modernisation vs Dependency” by Sharmila Joshi, 2005, discusses the differences between modernization and dependency theory. Modernisation theory argues that capitalism causes growth and progress, while dependency theory argues that capitalism and globalization have led to the creation of third world poverty.


“Dependency Theory: An Introduction” by Vincent Ferraro, 1996, defines dependency theory, discusses the historical roots of dependency theory, the three common features found in the definitions of this theory that is shared by dependency theorists (that there are two sets of states, that external forces are of importance to the economic activities within dependent states, and that the relationships between dominant and dependent states reinforce and intensify unequal patterns), and the structural context of dependency.


“Sustainable Development” from the World Bank, 2015, discusses sustainable development as one that has to be both inclusive and environmentally sound and discusses the three pillars of sustainable development (economic growth, environmental stewardship, and social inclusion).


“Imagining a Post-Development Era? Critical Thought, Development and Social Movements” by Arturo Escobar, 1992, discusses the possibility of redefining development through the action of social movements. This paper also discusses social movement theory in relation to development and modernity.


“Critique of the Critique: Post-Development and Points of Criticism” by Christiane Loper, 2011, discusses post-development theory, presents different points of criticism on post-development, and analyzes their relevance to post-development.


“Post-Development and the Practitioner” by Christopher Keith Johnson, 2014, criticizes post-development in arguing that it is more of a response to the perceived failure of development theory and practice than it is an actual theory.

“Remapping Development in Light of Globalisation: From a Territorial to a Social Cartography” by William I. Robinson, 2002, discusses development studies, how it has reached a dead end, and how deterritorializing the concept of development and instead focusing on social groups could help move it forward.


The United Nations Development Programme defines human development and its focus on people, opportunities, and choices.


“Economic Growth Versus Human Development” discusses how Mozambique has had high rates of economic growth, but how the social, economic, and cultural impact on the lives of its citizens are questionable. Mozambique ranks low in human development. The two main threats to development in Mozambique are HIV/AIDS and government administration.


“2015 Human Development Report- Rethinking Work for Human Development” by Selim Jahan, from the United Nations Human Development Programme, 2015, discusses how work does not necessarily lead to the enhancement of human development, the relationship between the two can be positive or negative.


Click here to access the Center for Global Development, which works to reduce poverty and inequality.


Click here to access the Millennium Challenge Corporation (MCC) an independent U.S. foreign aid agency created in 2004 with the aims of financially aiding developing countries in reducing poverty through sustainable economic growth.